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This category comprises the water balance components rainfall and surface runoff / overland flow. The Figure below shows examples of mirco- and macro runoff harvesting techniques, like the hillside conduit system, the so called hafir, which are distributed in Sudan, agricultural terraces, rooftop harvesting and the negarim.

Examples of micro- and macro runoff harvesting techniques. Slopes are exaggerated. (Beckers et al. 2013)