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Flight over the ice-filled Korolev Crater

This animation was created using an image mosaic made from single orbit observations of the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on board ESA’s Mars Express mission. It pictures the well-preserved Korolev crater on Mars, which is filled with water ice all year round. The color mosaic consists of five orbit strips (18042, 5726, 5692, 5654, 1412) and covers a region 161.8° - 168.0° East and 71.7° - 73.8° North. The color mosaic was created using data from the nadir channel, the field of view of which is aligned perpendicular to the surface of Mars, and the color channels of the HRSC. The mosaic image is then combined with topography information from the stereo channels of HRSC to generate a three-dimensional landscape. Finally, this landscape is recorded from different perspectives, as with a movie camera, to render a flight. The image mosaic was first presented in December 2018. The HRSC camera on Mars Express is operated by the German Aerospace Center (DLR). The systematic processing of the camera data took place at the DLR Institute for Planetary Research in Berlin-Adlershof. The working group of Planetary Science and Remote Sensing at Freie Universität Berlin used the data to create the image products shown here.

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Clip Information


• Title: Flight over Korolev Crater on Mars

• Year of publication: 2020

• Length: 02:40 min

• Data: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin

• Copyright: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin
  (CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO)


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Flight over Korolev Crater on Mars

» Read more about phase angles and the opposition effect

Korolev Crater is named after Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (1907-1966), the 'Chief Designer' and father of Russian space technology. He developed the first Russian intercontinental ballistic missile, the R7, which is the predecessor of the modern Soyuz launch vehicles still in use today. With his designs for rockets and spacecraft, Korolev launched the first artificial satellite, Sputnik, in 1957 and enabled Yuri Gagarin's flight to space, the first crewed spaceflight, in 1961. The launchers with which Soviet research missions to the Moon, Venus and Mars were carried into space were also based on Korolev's designs.

Until his death on 14 January 1966, Korolev and his engineers worked on an even more powerful launch vehicle that would have enabled Russian cosmonauts to journey to the Moon. Like the plans for the first expeditions into space, these activities were subject to the greatest secrecy in the Soviet Union. The national population and the rest of the world were not aware of the identity of person behind the title of 'Chief Designer' and the great successes of the USSR in the early years of space travel.

Until the success of the first Moon landing by Apollo 11 and its crew of Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins, there was uncertainty in the USA as to whether the Soviet Union had been able to maintain its initial lead in the space race and if it might soon be able to fly cosmonauts to the Moon. This is evident in numerous documents subsequently made available by NASA. At the time, the USA had only scarce espionage information. Korolev's opposite number at NASA, Wernher von Braun, formerly a leading engineer during the German development of military rockets – who moved to the USA with numerous other engineers at the end of the war – urged rapid development of the US Saturn V launcher.

It was only after the death of Korolev that von Braun learned the identity of his brilliant opponent. The Soviet administration initially struggled with disagreements and competing interests over the choice of Korolev’s successor and the course of future development for a Moon rocket that had never ended up exhibiting capabilities for crewed flight. Historians therefore regard Korolev's death as a decisive milestone in the race to the Moon between the two world powers of the USSR and USA, in which NASA eventually took the lead.

The impact crater Korolev is situated in the northern lowlands of Mars, south of the large Olympia Undae dune field that partly surrounds the north polar cap. Korolev’s crater floor lies two kilometers below its rim, and is covered whole year round with a large central mound of water ice. This 1.8-kilometer-thick domed deposit represents a large reservoir of non-polar ice on Mars.

Water ice is permanently stable within Korolev crater because the deepest part of this depression acts as a natural cold trap. The air above the ice cools and is thus heavier compared to the surrounding air. Since air is a poor conductor of heat, the ice is shielded from the surrounding. Only minor warm-up due to heat transfer occurrs, and the cold air shields the water ice mound effectively from heating and sublimation.


Animation: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO

Music: Björn Schreiner

Soundtrack Logo: Alicia Neesemann

Copyright Notice:

The video is licenced under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 IGO (CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO) licence. The user is allowed to reproduce, distribute, adapt, translate and publicly perform it, without explicit permission, provided that the content is accompanied by an acknowledgement that the source is credited as 'ESA/DLR/FU Berlin', a direct link to the licence text is provided and that it is clearly indicated if changes were made to the original content. Adaptation / translation / derivatives must be distributed under the same licence terms as this publication.

The High Resolution Stereo Camera was developed at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and built in collaboration with partners in industry (EADS Astrium, Lewicki Microelectronic GmbH and Jena-Optronik GmbH). The science team, which is headed by Principal Investigator (PI) Ralf Jaumann, consists of 52 co-investigators from 34 institutions and 11 countries. The camera is operated by the DLR Institute of Planetary Research in Berlin-Adlershof.

1 - Describes ice deposition in winter,
2 - the situation in spring,
3 - the crater as a cold trap in summer.

Sketch-Korolev Crater