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Technologically sophisticated concepts can easily clash with users’ socio-cultural needs and everyday behavior. Therefore, the project used a transdisciplinary approach based on the integration of science, technology and society. This approach is reflected in the project’s structure: the scientific components, concept development and empirical studies are closely interlocked with the integrative societal components such as participation and governance. This ensures social embedding of technologies and active involvement of institutional players and the local population, strengthening users’ self-reliance and ownership, and ensuring sustainable operation of the plants.

Thus, a new participatory method (demand-responsive approach) has been developed with Namibian partners. It was applied in the project to develop and implement the new technologies based on informed choices. Additionally, knowledge management provided tools to support decision making and planning processes.

The approaches applied within the project are listed below: