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The five major aspects of IWM are:

  1. A (sub-) catchment as a management unit, not forgetting the downstream effects of impacts and measures.
  2. sustainable management of all resources, not only water (holistic approach),
  3. development of protection areas,
  4. establishment of a Water Resource User Association and the development of a catchment management plan and
  5. the cooperation of all relevant stakeholder groups in a catchment.

Learn more about different aspects of IWM in the introduction to the learning material.

Environmental impact assessment is a national approach established in many countries to predict the consequences of a planned project. Often, this formal process includes a destription of the proposed project, the impacts expected, alternatives, mitigation strategies and problems to cope with the impacts.

Go to the section 'Environemntal impact assessment' in the learning content to read more about this topic!

Payment for environmental service is a concept of environmental economics; people are paid or recompensed for providing an ecosystem service to encourage a sustainable use of natural resources.