Eolian and fluvial deposits
The largest impact crater in the image has a diameter of 25 kilometers, but is only about 300 meters deep, probably because it has been filled by volcanic or sedimentary deposits. Mesas south of the impact crater and valleys in the near vicinity are remnants of a former widespread fluvial system in the Terra Cimmeria region. Recent studies point to surface runoff of ice or snow melt, probably during several episodic glacial-related events, as the source of water. The cap rock forming the mesas might originate from eolian deposits, comparable to airfall deposits in China forming loess up to several hundred meters thick. Numerous valley networks locally crosscut these deposits, as seen for instance north (right) of the impact crater. They most likely dewatered into the putative ancient Eridania sea, connecting the lower-elevation provinces north of the presented region.