Solutions: IWRM tools
1. Computer technology has not significantly improved the basis for decision making in river basin management in many countries. (True or false?)
2. Tools are particularly useful for setting priorities and developing management options in IWRM. (True or false?)
3. A disadvantage of these tools is that they do not promote transparency. (True or false?)
4. What is the difference between model codes and decision support systems (DSSs) in IWRM?
- Model codes describe isolated hydrological, hydro-economic or water resources processes.
- DSS is a framework that links together a database and processing environment, a knowledge and information system, a modelling and analysis framework, a socioeconomic analysis framework and a communication framework.
5. What have model codes been developed for? Name at least four.
- To increasing the understanding about the hydrological cycle.
- To quantify the water resources and predict the impact of human activities.
- To quantify the occurrence of short-term or long-term events in nature.
- To investigate how the available land and water resources can be optimal used for food and energy production.
- To assist the protection of vulnerable water resources and ecosystems.
6. What has become the major issue concerning valid information when using model codes and software in order to obtain the most benefit?
- Data quality
7. Model codes are effective and efficient, because they are just used for one specific geographic area, one specific time period or one specific problem. (True or false?)
8. What four issues do the procedures of model confirmation, verification, calibration and validation ensures?
- A correct understanding of the natural processes.
- A correct description of these in terms of mathematical equations.
- A correct set of parameters developed by comparing the model output with observed data.
- A correct prediction capability through model validation are achieved.
9. Successful development and use of a model in IWRM depends on four main factors which are they?
- Awareness of and access to appropriate model software.
- Availability of qualified staff to undertake the modelling studies.
- Availability of reliable data to create a model which can provide good decision support.
- Appropriate guidelines/agreements for accepting the model results.
10. What is the difference between hydraulic and hydrological models?
- Hydraulic models investigate and predict the in-stream flows, travel times, and water level variations in rivers, channels and canal systems.
- Hydrological models or precipitation-runoff-models deal with the relationship of water in the environment, investigating the occurrence, circulation and distribution of water within each phase of hydrologic cycle.
11. What is the difference between Water management systems and hydro-economic models?
- Water management systems determine long-term water sharing and allocation arrangements or operational river basin planning.
- Hydro-economic modelling address the issue of externality, environmental flow and equity in the model. They integrate the hydrologic, agronomic and economic relationship in an endogenous system that allows for adaptation to changes in environmental, ecological and socioeconomic states.
12. What challenges have to be faced when implementing hydro-economic models? Name at least two.
- Boundaries of the economic sub-systems might be different from those of the hydrological sub-systems.
- Data collection and management as well as aligning socioeconomic impacts with hydrological or biophysical spatial units.
- Differences in time steps and planning horizons between hydrological and economic processes.
13. Name at least two different types of models used in IWRM which were not mentioned in the three questions before.
- Groundwater models
- Irrigation models
- Climate change impact models
14. IWRM deals with many facets of water management. Decision support systems (DSSs) can support solutions by developing and adding generic tools. Which are such tools? Name at least four.
- Web publishing
- Multi criteria analyses
- Time series processing
- Simulation codes
- Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
- Spread sheets
15. What are the four key requirements when considering sustainability issues in DSSs?
- Requirements of software, supplier, and client
- Organisational requirements
- Training requirements
- Financial requirements
16. With IWRM measures great successes can be achieved but also they can cause costly failures. DSSs offer strategies to overcome various issues and to minor or even avoid different challenges phased by IWRM. Name at least three of these challenges.
- Lack of integrative tools to support planning and management decisions
- Segmentation of institutions responsible for water resources planning and management
- Limited participation of stakeholders in decision making processes
- Lack of disinterested self-assessment and improvement mechanisms
- Continuing specialization of science and engineering education at the expense of interdisciplinary training