Soil and vegetation
Topographic features and the connected diversity in climatic conditions are the most determining factors for soils and vegetation in the study area. The Ükök river catchment can be divided into five geoecological zones. These are the intermountain depression (arable land, settlements, infrastructure), the semi-desert, the dry steppe, the short grass steppe and the long grass steppe. There are also some azonal ecological units, e.g. wetlands.
Four main types of soil can be identified in Ükök catchment along a moisture, horizon depth and humus content gradient: Syrosems, Burozems, Kastanozems and Chernozems. Also some transiton zones can be observed, which are dark Kastanozems and Kastanozem–Chernozems.