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The participants of the workshop make the following recommendations to use the IWM approach for the secure fresh water supply of Mbale City:

  • Water harvesting is a method to induce, collect, store and conserve local surface run-off and groundwater. Surfcae water harvesting methods are partly implemented in the Manafwa subcatchment. In this way, water harvesting could be extended and completed by groundwater harvesting methods. Benefits include a decrease of run-off and soil erosion, an increase of infiltration, base flow and agricultural productivity.
  • Aquifer Recharge Management is—depending on the aquifer features—a promising method to secure the base flow of the Manafwa River.
  • Agroforestry is combination of agricultural and pastoral land use and integrated forestry operations. The aim is to create a more diverse and resistant ecological stability by securing the agricultural production. Further benefits are reduced soil degradation, enhanced infiltration and even aquifer recharge when deep-rooted vegetation is growing. The method is applied in the subatchment but could be further promoted in the background of inappropriate income generating activities.
  • Alley cropping is the planting of trees or shrubs in rows with crops cultivated in the alleys between rows of the woody plants. In the context of deforestation, benefits are diverse. The range from reduced run-off and erosion to diversified agricultural production and nutrients combined with new sources of income generation up to a change of the micro-climate and base flow recharge.
  • Alternative energies: In the subcatchment non-timber energy resources need to be implemented. Solar energy could be an opportunity on micro as well as meso scale. At the same, time afforestation has to be promoted.
  • Capacity building and training: There is a need for sensitisation about indigenous trees and biogas opportunities. Beyond, it is an opportunity and need to invite stakeholders from the Manafwa subcatchment to the next IWM workshop.
  • Soil cover maintenance: Soil cover is crucial for infiltration rates, erosion protection and thus ensures base and average flow and decreases peak flow. Mulching, intercropping, afforestation and riparian grasses are appropriate measures to increase soil cover in the area. The minimization of soil compaction is also important.
  • Floodplains: Floodplains have to protected and not to be uses as settlement or agricultural areas. Then they turn to advantages for villagers regarding physical and economical resilience and for urban citizens considering improved water quality.
  • Weirs and water ponds: Beyond, inexpensive technology for weirs and water ponds on micro-level can support the infiltration rate of precipitation. Early warning systems–established by the local community and the National Water Sewage Cooperation—can be helpful to reduce the vulnerability of storms and peak flow events.