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  • Heather, D. C. (1979): Plate Tectonics. Hodder & Stoughton, Publisher, 80 pp.
  • Mears, B. J. (1970 ): The Changing Earth: An Introductory Geology. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.
  • Stanley, S. ( 2005  ): Earth System History. W.H. Freeman and Comp. New York.

Interesting Websites:

Special Papers and publications:

  • Bonatti, E.: (1987): The rifting of continents.- Scientific American, 256 (3), p.. 74-81.
  • Bond, G.C., Nickelson, P.A. and Kominz, M. A. (1984), Breakup of supercontinent between 625Ma and 55Ma;New evidence and implicationes for continental histories.   Earth and Planetary Science Letters Bd. 70 p.325-345  Amsterdam.
  • Carey, S. W. (1955): "Wegener's South America-Africa Assembly, Fit or Misfit?" Geol. Mag. 92 pp. 196-200.
  • DeWit, M., and others (1999): Gondwana Reconstruction and Dispersion.-  American Assoc. of Petroleum Geologists, Search and Discovery.
  • Dietz, R. S. (1961): Continent and Ocean Basin Evolution by Spreading of the Sea FIoor.- Nature, Londres 190 pp. 854-857.
  • Dietz, R. S, y J. C. Holden (1970): Reconstruction of Pangaea: Breakup and Dispersión of Continents.- J. geophys. Res. 75 (26) pp. 4939-4956.
  • Du Toit, A. (1937): Our Wandering Continents. - Oliver & Boyd, Edimburg, 366 p.
  • Forsyth, D. and Uyeda, S. (1975):  On the relative importance of the driving forces of plate motion. - Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc., 43, p. 163-200
  • Griem W. (2007). Winter School 2007: "e-Learning in the Environmental and Geosciences" Berlin, January, 2007.
  • Haq, B. U.  (1984). Paleoceanography: A synoptic overview of 200 million years of ocean history. In: B. U. Haq and J. P. Milliman, Editors, Marine Geology and Oceanography of Arabian Sea and Coastal Pakistan, Van Nostrand–Reinhold, New York, pp. 201–234.
  • Haq, B.U.0. (1984): Paleoceanography: A Synoptic Overview of 200 Million Years of Ocean History  Exxon Production Research Company  p.  Houston, Texas.
  • König, M., Jokat, W. (2006): The Mesozoic breakup of the Weddell Sea: Journal of geophysical research, 111, B12102. DOI 10.10292005JB004035.
  • Meert, J.G.  (2003): A synopsis of events related to the assembly of eastern Gondwana, Tectonphysics, 362, pp. 1-40.
  • Pletsch, T., J. Erbacher, A. E. L. Holbourn, W. Kuhnt, M. Moullade, F. E. Oboh-Ikuenobede, E. Söding and T. Wagner (2001):Cretaceous separation of Africa and South America: the view from the West African margin (ODP Leg 159). -Journal of South American Earth Sciences; Volume 14, Issue 2.  Pages 147-174.
  • Scheffler, K., Hoernes S. and Schwark L. (2003): Global changes during Carboniferous–Permian glaciation of Gondwana: Linking polar and equatorial climate evolution by geochemical proxies. Geology, 31, pp. 605-608.
  • Schuchardt, K. (1889): Ueber das Wesen der Ozaena nebst einigen Bemerkungen über Epithelmetaplasie.- Leipzig.
  • Wegener, A. (2002*) The origins of continents: Geol Rundsch 3:276-292    pp. 4 - 17 . - International Journal of Earth Sciences; Vol. 91;  No. 1 (supplement - Artículos Históricos).
  • Wegener, A. (1929): Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane. Gebr. Borntraeger, 481 p..
  • Wilson, J. T. (1973):  Mantle plumes and plate motions. - Tectonophysics, 19, pp. 149-164.
  • Potter, P.E. (1997):  The Mesozoic and Cenozoic paleodrainage of South America: a natural history.-   Journal of South American Earth Sciences Vol. 10, pp. 331-344.
  • Somoza R. (1998): Updated Nazca (Farallon)––South America relative motions during the last 40 My: implications for mountain building in the central Andean region. -Journal of South American Earth Sciences; Volume 11, 3, pp. 211-215.
  • Zonnenshayn, L., Savostin, L. and Sedov, A. (1984):  Global paleogeodynamic reconstructions for the last 160 million year.-  Geotectonics 18, 3, pp.181- 195.



  • Smith  A.G. and Hallam, A. (1970): The fit of the southern continents. Nature 225, pp. 139–144.


  • Rubino J. L., Deynoux M., Ghienne J-F., Moreau J., Blanpied C., Lafont F., Andres-Calatrava R., Galeazzi S., Mynth T., Sommer F. (2003): Late Ordovician Glaciation in Northern Gondwana, Reappraisal and Petroleum Implications. AAPG Hedberg Conference “Paleozoic and Triassic Petroleum Systems in North Africa”. February 18-20,  Algiers, Algeria.

Fauna and Flora

  • Collinson, J. W., W. R. Hammer, R. A. Askin, and D. H. Elliot (2006): Permian-Triassic boundary, central Transantarctic Mountains,Antarctica, Geological Soc.America Bull., 118, 747-763.
  • Larsson, K. (1995): Permian vertebrate remains from Kirwanbeggen, Dronning Maud Land, Abstracts, VII International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, Siena (Italy), 10-15 September 1995, p. 86.
  • Rubidge, B. S. (2005): Re-uniting lost continents – Fossil reptiles from the ancient Karoo and their wanderlust, South African J. Geology, 108, 135-172.
  • Taylor, E. L., T. N., Taylor, and N. R. Cúneo (2000): Permian and Triassic high latitude paleoclimates: Evidence from fossil biotas, In Warm Climates in Earth History, edited by B. T., Huber, K. G. MacLeod, and S. L. Wing, pp. 321-350, Cambridge University Press, New York.


  • De Wit, M., Jeffery, M., Bergh, H., and Nicolaysen, L. (1988): Geological map of sectors of Gondwana reconstructed to their disposition ~150 Ma. America Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, OK 74101, scale 1:10,000,000.
  • Golonka, J., Ross, M.I., and Scotese, C.R. (1994): Phanerozoic paleogeographic and paleoclimatic modeling maps., in A.F. Embry, et al., eds., Pangaea: Global environments and resources. Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, Calgary, Canada, 1-47.
  • Lawver, L.A., Gahagan, L.M., Dalziel, I.W.D. (1999): A tight fit – Early Mesozoic Gondwana, a plate reconstruction perspective. Mem. Natl. Ist. Polar Res. Spec Issue 53, 214-229.
  • Sears J.W, St. George G.M. and Winne J.C. (2005): Continental rift systems and anorogenic magmatism. Lithos, 80, 147-154.

Mineral Deposits

  • Haberlin Y.; Moritz R.; Fontbote L. (2003): Paleozoic orogenic gold deposits in the eastern Central Andes and its foreland, South America.-Ore Geology Reviews, Volume 22, Number 1, pp. 41-59.
  • Shilo, N.A. (2007): http://www.springerlink.com/content/0201271l37h5107n/.