Soil and water conservation is - in its outlines- a worldwide strategy in the context of a sustainable and poverty-orientated natural resource management .
Soil and water conservation are those activities at the local level which maintain or enhance the productive capacity of the land including soil, water and vegetation in areas prone to degradation through
prevention or reduction of soil erosion, compaction, salinity;
conservation or drainage of water and
maintenance or improvement of soil fertility .
These activities are to be selected and implemented according to the respective local conditions; i.e., the strategy is adapted at the local level.
Soil and water conservation is an integral part of Integrated Watershed Management. Although Watershed Management was formerly considered to be nearly synonymous with soil and water conservation, it goes far beyond it today, comprising a variety of further activities that attempt to improve the living conditions of the people living within the respective watershed (e.g., building of social infrastructure such as schools) .
Its success will depend on the participation of local people with their traditional knowledge. After the detailed analyses of the watershed the watershed manager and the population will together select, implement and carry out the soil and water conservation measures suitable for the natural and human conditions of the selected watershed.
Some economic, institutional and political aspects have to be considered as well. Additionally, environmental education of the public involved and capacity building of regional actors is an important cornerstone for the success of Watershed Management projects . What participation means and why it is essential in Watershed Management you can learn on the next page.