Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a national instrument and shall be undertaken for proposed activities that are likely to have a significant adverse impact on the environment and are subject to a decision of a competent national authority .
EIA is emerged internationally after the 1972 Stockholm Conference and is now recognised internationally in the Rio Principles and the 1991 Espoo Convention.
The main advantages and benefits of EIA are:
- improved project design/siting
- more informed decision‐making (with improved opportunities for public involvement in decision‐making
- more environmentally sensitive decisions
- increased accountability and transparency during the development process
- improved integration of projects into their environmental and social setting
- reduced environmental damage
- more effective projects in terms of meeting their financial and/or
- socio‐economic objectives
- a positive contribution towards achieving sustainability
- Despite widespread agreement on these achievements, it is recognized that they do not occur uniformly or consistently in all countries or organizations