Definition of planning

"Planning is usually interpreted as a process to develop a strategy to achieve desired [] objectives, to solve problems, and to facilitate action" [1].

The role of the planner is thus to identify a desirable future and to prepare a course of action to achieve this goal [1]. He records this in a plan. In the course of this module you will learn how planning can be carried out.

Natural resource planning thus is - with regard to resources - "the identification of possible desirable future end states, and development of courses of action to reach such end states" [1].

Definition of management

Management refers to the controlling and planning of details [2]. By judicious use of available means the actual decisions are made and actions are carried out to achieve the objectives [3].

Management thus requires both plans and objectives [3].

The manager has therefore to control, handle and direct the decision-making and the course of action. He has the responsibility and the authority to allocate the capital, technology and human resources to achieve the desired end [4].

Natural resource management thus comprises actual decisions and actions concerning policy and practice regarding how resources are appraised, protected, allocated, developed, utilised, processed, rehabilitated, remediated and restored, monitored and evaluated [5].

Measures are the concrete actions aiming at sustainable resource management.