National level

At national level countries developed a wide range of laws, which are often conflicting (depending with ministry drafted a gazetted the law) national wide and trans‐boundary. With regard to integrated watershed management the water acts of the respective countries are binding, e.g.:

Kenya: http://www.water.go.ke
South Africa: http://www.dwaf.gov.za/

Different countries of the world have put in place a number of different water laws concerning utilisation and management of water resources within their respective jurisdiction. Countries are responsible for implementing their respective laws concerning water management, but this implementation should respect other water users, counties and
within the framework of the international water laws. The process of enacting national water laws is always characterised by four core areas namely:

  1. Evolution and development of national water law
  2. Legal status of water resources 
  3. Right to use water 
  4. Water quality and pollution control

Reform in several African countries show the importance of decentralisation and empowerment of community based organisations for better water governance and improving performance of laws.

The following example shows a stakeholder survey of water related institutions and its interaction for financing water.  It also shows the complexity of the entire water dynamics for institutional perspective and how difficult it is to bring all laws in line with necessary needs and demands.