North Pole temperatures

30 hPa monthly mean North Pole temperatures

Muench and Borden (1962) had analysed monthly mean stratospheric charts from 1955-1959. From these data, B. Naujokat extrapolated the 30 hPa North Pole temperatures for the period July 1955 till June 1957 which enlarges the data set of the Freie Universität Berlin analyses (FUB-analyses) for the North Pole. The other temperature data were extrapolated from our daily maps until 1965 when the temperature analyses were published together with the maps and digitized accordingly, like the height maps. The FUB-analyses end in June 2001. All later data are taken from the operational analyses of ECMWF.

Table 1: Monthly Mean 30 hPa North Pole Temperatures in °C. RJ: monthly mean of the sunspot number in January; QBO: the phase of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (determined using the wind between 50 and 40 hPa (45 hPa) in January and February); TRT: (Transition Time) indicates the timing of the transition to summer conditions (early: TMar >= -51°C and/or TApr >= -44°C; the mean zonal wind in 60°N has to be easterly by April 9th.); *FW indicates the occurrence of a Major Final-Warming; CW stands for Canadian Warmings; * indicates the occurrence of a Major Mid-Winter Warming; C stands for a cold monthly mean (about half a standard deviation below the average). After the winter 1984/85 the 30-year mean is given with the standard deviation. At the bottom of the table: the longterm mean, the standard deviation, the linear trend (K/decade) for the whole period (n=58) and the confidence level in %. Update of (Labitzke and Naujokat, 2000). Data source: 1955/56 - 1956/57 Muench and Borden (1962), 1957/58 - 2000/01 FUB-analyses, 2001/02 - 2012/13 ECMWF operational analyses.

MONTHLY MEAN 30 hPa NORTH POLE TEMPERATURES (°C)
YEAR RJ Nov Dec Jan QBO Feb Mar Apr TRT
1951/52 41 CW east * late
1952/53 27 CW west late
1953/54 0 west *FW early
1954/55 23 CW * east late
1955/56 74 -68 -79C -76C west -71C -61C -45 late
1956/57 165 -68 -73 -74 east -38* -58 -53C late
1957/58 203 -70C -79C -71 west -49* -61C -57C late
1958/59 217 -58CW -67CW -74 east -73C -51*FW -43 early
1959/60 146 -71C -69CW -60 west -70C -69C -41 early
1960/61 58 -64 -65 -65 east -72C -42*FW -47 early
1961/62 39 -67 -80C -79C west -67 -65C -57C late
1962/63 20 -69CW -74 -74 east -52* -61C -54C late
1963/64 15 -72C -81C -78C west -77C -47*FW -44 early
1964/65 18 -70C -77C -76C west -73C -62C -45 late
1965/66 28 -68 -59CW -76C east -60* -56 -48 late
1966/67 111 -65 -73CW -80C west -78C -72C -48 late
1967/68 122 -71C -75 -58* west -68 -67C -52C late
1968/69 104 -63CW -62 -72 east -74C -57 -47 late
1969/70 112 -71C -73 -49* west -62 -67C -47 late
1970/71 91 -71C -78C -54* east -66 -56 -51C late
1971/72 62 -72 -78C -79C west -70 -56 -44 early
1972/73 43 -69CW -79C -73 east -44* -56 -52C late
1973/74 28 -71C -78C -78C west -79C -50*FW -44 early
1974/75 19 -65CW -74 -65 east -68 -48*FW -46 early
1975/76 8 -71C -77C -80C west -78C -65C -34*FW early
1976/77 16 -63CW -68 -60* east -69 -60 -40 early
1977/78 52 -68CW -77C -74 e/w -66 -49 -44 early
1978/79 167 -74C -74CW -75 west -60*FW -51 -49 early
1979/80 162 -64CW -72 -80C east -70C -46*FW -45 early
1980/81 114 -68CW -82C -81C west -56* -54 -54C late
1981/82 111 -71C -70CW -71 east -69 -64C -38*FW early
1982/83 86 -74C -79C -79C west -62 -52 -46 late
1983/84 57 -70C -77C -80C w/e -65 -43*FW -50 early
1984/85 17 -71C -73 -53* east -66 -57 -46 late
Tmean(n=30) -68.6 -74.1 -71.5 -65.7 -56.8 -47.0
Stdev 3.6 5.6 9.1 9.9 7.8 5.3
C <= -70.0 <= -77.0 <= -76.0 <= -70.0 <= -60.0 <= -51.0
1985/86 3 -73C -81C -76C west -74C -53*FW -41 early
1986/87 10 -76C -78C -60* east -49 -58 -53C late
1987/88 59 -66 -56* -77C west -80C -52*FW -44 early
1988/89 161 -71 -77 -82C west -57*FW -45 -52C early
1989/90 177 -71 -79C -80C east -63 -66C -52C late
1990/91 137 -74C -76 -70 west -57* -61 -45 early
1991/92 150 -72CW -78C -66 east -59 -55 -44 early
1992/93 59 -70 -77C -80C west -68 -54 -49 late
1993/94 58 -70 -70CW -66 west -77C -65C -38 early
1994/95 24 -71 -81C -70 e/w -57 -66C -49 late
1995/96 12 -71 -79C -81C west -75C -55 -48 late
1996/97 7 -66CW -69 -79C east -83C -79C -56C late
1997/98 32 -73C -66 -67 west -64 -62C -48 late
1998/99 62 -72C -63* -67 east -69* -51 -55C late
1999/00 90 -75C -81C -84C west -74C -60 -46 late
2000/01 95 -65CW -70 -79C w/e -50* -57 -58C late
2001/02 114 -73C -71* -59 east -57* -62C -55C late
2002/03 80 -77C -80C -65* west -64 -57 -50 late
2003/04 37 -75C -72 -53* east -62 -71C -63C late
2004/05 31 -69 -82C -84C west -73 -51 -46 early
2005/06 15 -72C -77C -54* east -57 -65C -59C late
2006/07 17 -74C -79C -78C west -68* -63C -48 late
2007/08 3 -70 -80C -79C east -61* -49 -53C early
2008/09 1 -72C -75 -69 west -50* -62C -58C late
2009/10 13 -64 -77C -72 east -52* -55 -52C late
2010/11 19 -72C -79C -81C west -82C -76C -40 late
2011/12 58 -76C -82C -67 west -64 -63C -54C late
2012/13 63 -77C -74 -56* east -63 -70C -61C late
Tmean(n=58) -70.1 -74.7 -71.4 -65.1 -58.4 -48.7
Stdev 3.8 5.9 9.2 9.8 8.0 6.0
Trend K/dec -1.0 -0.6 -0.2 0.3 -0.8 -1.0
conf. % 99 82 25 29 81 97
C <= -72 <= -77 <= -76 <= -70 <= -62 <= -51

References

Labitzke, K. and B. Naujokat, (2000): The lower arctic stratosphere in winter since 1952. SPARC Newsletter No.15, 11-14.

Muench, H. S. and T. R. Borden, (1962): Atlas of monthly mean stratosphere charts, 1955-1959: Part I, January-June; Part II, July-December. Air Force Surveys in Geophysics No. 141.