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Basics of Statistics - Concepts and Applications

Welcome to the section Basics of Statistics - Concepts and Applications. In this section we explore the basics of statistics, with a special focus on descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. In the following subsections we present the statistical theory and we provide hands-on coding recipes in the R programming environment. If you are not yet comfortable with R it is recommended to go through the section INTRODUCTION TO THE STATISTICAL PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE R first.

Please note that the content of the section BASICS OF STATISTICS - CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS complements and extends the material covered in the class Introduction to Statistics, held at the Department of Geosciences, Institute of Geographical Sciences at Freie Universität Berlin.

Every effort has been made in the preparation of this section to ensure the accuracy of the information presented. However, the information given comes without warranty, either express or implied. Neither the author, nor Freie Universität Berlin will be held liable for any damages caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly by the content of this section.

If you find any writing or coding errors or have any suggestions to improve the readability we would appreciate if you contact us.


The E-Learning project SOGA-R was developed at the Department of Earth Sciences by Kai Hartmann, Joachim Krois and Annette Rudolph. You can reach us via mail by soga[at]zedat.fu-berlin.de.

Creative Commons License
You may use this project freely under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Please cite as follow: Hartmann, K., Krois, J., Rudolph, A. (2023): Statistics and Geodata Analysis using R (SOGA-R). Department of Earth Sciences, Freie Universitaet Berlin.