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Test questions: Water governance

1. Which sectors should be included and what is the task of water governance?


2. Why is water governance so important for IWRM?


3. Understanding democratic political behaviour is to understand that parliamentarians are “single-minded seekers of re-election”. What does it mean and what is the problem?


4. Besides written laws there are also systems of social rights and responsibilities that remain traditional and uncodified but they are less strong because they are just manifested in cultural expectations rather than in written rules. (True or false?)


5. Good law for sustainable sanitation and water management recognises and acknowledges existing uses and rights, including international norms. At the same time, it is flexible enough to permit reform in response to technological change and socio-economic need. (True or false?)


6. What objectives should be address by legal frameworks and laws to achieve optimal regulations to promote a sustainable management of water resources?


7. Why is the enforcement of laws as important as the formulation of these laws itself and why do enforcement bodies need command and control tools based on laws as statutes for their work as well?


8. Water law is mostly about property rights. Discussions of water rights usually focus upon the rights of the property right holder. What is thereby often ignored?


9. What does river basin management comprises?


10. What are some of the key elements to a successful integrated river basin management? Name at least four.


11. What are main institutional challenges for a river basin (watershed) management? Name at least two.


12.   Give an example of a transboundary conflict caused by a negative externality directed downstream and a negative externality directed upstream.


13. Capacity development plays a key role in target/problem-oriented research and the sustainable implementation of research results. Which targets/problems can customized capacity development help to achieved/overcome? Name at least three.


14. What are the three central functions of participation which increase the effectiveness of making decision in IWRM?


15.   The World Bank views gender equality as smart economics. According to this statement what would the failure of empowering half the world’s population lead to? Give at least two examples.


16. Gender in mainstream is a strategy for making women’s as well as men’s concerns and experiences an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes in all political, economic and societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally. (True or False?)


17. Focusing on gender relations analyses mainly draw attention to women because the position of women can better be understood by the isolation the issue from the broader relationships between women and man. (True or False?)


18. Observations by global water and sanitation practitioners have recognized the importance of incorporating a gender perspective. Name at least five results of these observations.


19. What goals require changes in water policies and institutions? Name at least four.


20. Reforms in the sense of changing institutional mandates, policies and legislation is always what is needed to achieve change in water governance. (True or False? - and explain your answer.)