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Sludge disposal

Activity on land-fill site on Canford Heath

Activity on land-fill site on Canford Heath
Image Credit: Toby (2007)

Final or ultimate disposal of sludge, which cannot be reused, is landfilling or incineration. Since sludge for landfilling usually contains heavy metals or toxic chemicals, lining of the landfill with clay or plastic liner may be required to prevent contamination of groundwater. Incineration of sludge is by a multiple hearth furnace or fluidized bed furnace. Energy input is required to dry the sludge before combustion is self-sustaining. Combustion flue gases usually need treatment to meet air pollution control standards. Investment and operating costs are high.

(UNEP 2000)