Planning models describe how planning may proceed. Several models have been developed over the past decades. Each reflects different values and assumptions about the nature of the world for which planning is done and about the role of the planner . Two important ones for natural resource management and development are presented here – comprehensive rational planning and transactive planning (see figure).
It is increasingly recognised that participative ways of planning are essential for natural resource management and rural development [6, 7, 8, among others]. Thus, a participatory way of planning is necessary and the transactive planning model used for Integrated Watershed Management.
(see also participation).
A model that explicitly considers uncertainty in prognoses about reactions of systems and limited knowledge of the planner – two challenges the planner is faced with - is adaptive planning. New information and insights are integrated quickly and continuously in the planning process, and management is adjusted correspondingly.