From Top to Bottom-Seismicity, Motion Patterns & Stress Distribution in the Alpine Crust
Nov 01, 2017 — Oct 31, 2020
The aim of our project is to investigate the processes which control the seismicity of the Alps. We hypothesize that patterns of stress and motion can be quantified from the seismicity which is observed with unprecedented resolution by AlpArray ( http://www.alparray.ethz.ch/en/home ). A major ...
Anatomy of a Subduction Zone from Ocean Mantle to Crust: Seismicity and Seismic Structure in Northern Chile
Jan 01, 2015 — Dec 31, 2019
We investigate subduction-related seismic structures, including the fine-scale structure of the megathrust shear zone and underlying oceanic plate, and of earthquake sources in the northern Chile forearc by employing a suite of innovative methods of seismicity processing, imaging and ...
Disentangling roles of stress, pore pressure and shaking from wavefields recorded during the 2014 Northern Chile earthquake sequence — WAVEFIELDS
Jan 01, 2015 — May 31, 2019
This project aims at quantifying and understanding the structural dynamics within the crust leading to, during and after a great megathrust earthquake. This includes the evolution of stress in the lithosphere and identifying signatures of possible fluid migration at depth. We will exploit the ...
HGF Helmholtz Alliance
Apr 01, 2008 — Mar 31, 2013
The Helmholtz Alliance “ Planetary Evolution and Life ” under the coordinative direction of the DLR Institute of Planetary Research in Berlin-Adlershof examines the correlation between life and the formation and evolution of planets in our solar system. The focus of studies is planet Mars, which is investigated from its interior to its atmosphere. Martian surface with craters in the region Hesperia Planum The research alliance investigates the interaction between atmosphere and biosphere, interactions inside the atmosphere, the planetary magnetic field, impact events, climate evolution as well as developments of strategies for the exploration of other planets. Several institutions are significantly involved in this alliance: Along with the DLR these are the Alfred-Wegener-Institute in Potsdam, the Technical University of Berlin (TU), the Humboldt-University of Berlin (HU), the Max Planck Institutes for Biogeochemistry and Solar System Research, the Yale University (USA) and several others. Mobility of substances and material cycles are the geological prerequisites for the evolution of life on a planet. Planetary surfaces are the contact area between the solid planetary body and its atmosphere. The planetary surface and near-surface structures are well accessible for investigations and provide information about the current condition as well as about the planets evolution in the past. To recognize possible material cycles and mobility of substances it is important to understand coherences and interactions between lithosphere and atmosphere and to compare information about the current condition with older structures. The Planetary Sciences and Remote Sensing Group was directly involved in the Helmholtz Alliance with research projects under the leadership of Prof. Neukum (April 2008 to March 2012) and Prof. van Gasselt (April 2012 to March 2013) respectively. The research topic “Geological Context of Life” formed the key activities of the research group. Here, especially work on age determination of planetary surfaces was performed: investigations concerning the relative stratigraphy absolute age determination by crater counting assessment of the duration of geological processes stability of environmental conditions
Oct 01, 2013 — Sep 30, 2016
The further development of geothermal systems has recently been affected by the occurrence of perceptible earthquakes which led to concern by the local population. For the public acceptance of deep geothermal energy it is vital to give a clear scientific statement whether the seismicity will stay limited to micro-earthquakes or if the induced events might pose a risk for humans and/or infrastructure. Within the framework of the BMU funded project MAGS concepts will be elaborated how to limit the induced seismicity in deep geothermal systems and thus, avoiding perceptible events.
Rupture processes and magnitude statistics of induced earthquakes and aftershocks: A detailed view from deep South African gold mines
Sep 01, 2017 — Aug 31, 2019
Despite our general understanding of earthquake processes, it is stillnot fully understood how earthquakes ruptures nucleate and propagate and why they stop. Furthermore, the controlling factors of the frequency and the size of earthquake are subject of ongoing research. In our proposal, we aim to ...
Stress dependency of seismic velocity
Aug 01, 2015 — Jul 31, 2017
The aim of the project was to improve the estimation of pressure dependent velocity in sedimentary rocks, taking into account lithology (e.g. clay content) and pressure conditions. The project included theoretical and phenomenological analyses of intrinsic and stress induced seismic ...
Apr 01, 2013 — Sep 30, 2015
The US Apollo- and the Russian Luna-missions returned hundreds of kilograms of surface rocks from the Moon to the Earth which have been used for detailed rock analysis. We therefore have high-precision geochemical information from very few locations on the Moon, whereas information about the rest of the Moon's surface is sparse. The main objective of developing a planetary X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) is the design of an experiment that allows us to precisely determine the geochemical composition of rocky surfaces from orbit. Closed vacuum chamber (left image) and open test chamber with a reference sample on the left and detector on the right side (right image) The first developments of a XRF laboratory prototype in the Planetary Sciences and Remote Sensing Group go back to the work connected with the Lunar Exploration Orbiter (LEO), a national concept and phase-A study of a lunar orbiter. This concept (XRF-L) has been revised several times and has also been expanded for use in the outer solar system (XRF-J). The experiment shall be able to identify the chemical elements of a solid body without atmosphere at a distance of 50-200 km from the surface by using the highly variable solar X-ray radiation. The chemical elements of which minerals and hence rocks are formed are of special interest to geologists. These elements are, e.g., silicon, magnesium, iron, sodium, aluminum, calcium, potassium and titanium. The development of the X-ray fluorescence spectrometer in the project team of the FU Berlin is funded by the National Space Administration with means of the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy . The previous project was initiated under the leadership of Prof. Neukum † and led by him until March 2012. The currently granted period of eligibility is from April 2013 to September 2015 (reference number FKZ 50 JR 1303). In the ongoing project the FU Berlin co-operates with industrial partners as well as with the University of Applied Sciences Berlin (HTW) to design and construct individual components.
Jan 01, 2014 — Mar 31, 2017
The iMars project focuses on developing a user platform for Mars surface science, consisting of a consistent set of data products of Mars from the 1970s to the present day. The concept aims to generate a webGIS using imaging data from NASA and ESA missions; including specific tools for producing, exploring and analyzing data products for studies of surface changes over time . Planetary surface science has seen a dramatic increase in both quality and quantity of observations over the last decades, especially in 3D imaging. The EU funded iMars-project has started in 2014 and aims to generate an automated processing system which allows to study this large volume of multi-type observation data from different epochs. It is anticipated that the entire NASA and ESA record of Martian orbital image data will be collected within a single environment for handling, visualisation and subsequent analyses. Such analyses will be conducted automatically using change-detection algorithms or interactively using the citizen-science concept implemented at Zooniverse . Close user interaction plays a paramount role within iMars which requires sophisticated concepts for data handling and communication. This interactive data hub will be realised through open-source webGIS implementations and by providing webGIS services to the user community using established OGC-protocols. General project workflow from unprocessed raw data (1) to higher level science data (2) and results obtained from citizen science (3). The iMars webGIS is the central hub which integrates higher-level co-registered data products as well as results from user analysis. (Figure: S. van Gasselt © 2014) For planetary data only a few web-based GIS have been implemented during the last decade and even fewer can be considered as being established in and accepted by the user community. Most web-based services today are either archive systems as realised in the Planetary Data System (PDS) and the Planetary Science Archive (PSA) nodes. Web-based services are map-focussed systems targeted at visualisation rather than ancillary data and metadata access (e.g., Google Mars). The developing of iMars-webGIS includes the combination of co-registered, terrain-corrected and multi-temporal Martian imaging data and specific higher-level tools within a single map-focused information system. This platform will allow to navigate data intuitively and conveniently; to discover what and where surface changes have occurred since the mid-1970s.