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The "lava filled crater"

A very different appearance is shown by the next ancient impact crater further to the north and marked as “lava filled crater” in the annotated image. Here, the morphology rather suggests a lava infill or cover of the impact crater floor. Also, none of the periglacial features present in the large crater can be found. Neighboring further north, a large field of dendritic valleys can be found. These valleys are believed to have formed relatively early in Martian history by atmospheric precipitation (rain or snow).

Finally, a large lava field is located in the lower right section of the image. Here, wrinkle ridges can be found. These features are created when tectonic forces compress a lava sheet that is still soft and elastic. The steeper side of the wrinkle ridges mark the front of the ridge where the material buckled up and over the subsequent lava sheet. All these different landforms demonstrate the complex history and evolution of Mars within a single image.