Bewertung protoconchmorphologischer Daten basaler Caenogastropoda (Cerithiimorpha und Littorinimorpha) hinsichtlich ihrer Systematik und Evolution von der Kreide bis rezent
The orders Cerithiimorpha and Littorinimorpha represent large systematic units within the stem of Caenogastropoda with simple conical-orthostrophic protoconchs. These groups are separated since the Upper Triassic showing increasing diversity since the Upper Cretaceous. Representatives of five superfamilies and 20 families are described with special reference to their early ontogenetic shells. The family Procerithiidae within the superfamily Cerithioidea has been distributed worldwide since Jurassic times as a faunal element in shallow marine environments. Regarding the shape and sculpture of its larval shell the procerithiid Schroederium n.g. could be differentiated from the genera Procerithium and Cryptaulax. Since the Upper Cretaceous brackish-water Cassiopidae, Potamididae and Melanopsidae can be differentiated from Procerithiidae by their protoconch-morphology. The families Batillariidae and Modulidae represent Adelphotaxa. This relation is proven by the uniting character of embryonic tuberculated sculpture and data concerning their anatomy. The Cerithiidae, subfamily Cerithiinae, are documented since the Eocene with preserved protoconchs. Two types of larval sculpture are present depending on the settled habitat, correlated with two different types of radulae. The subfamily Bittiinae is also documented and distinguished from the Cerithiinae by their protoconch-morphology since the Eocene. The Adelphotaxa Planaxidae and Thiaridae with the uniting character of a brood pouch within the head-foot are present since the Eocene. Larval shells of fossil and Recent Planaxinae are compared. Protoconchs of representatives of the subfamily Fossarinae with different teleo-conch-morphology proved the close relation to the Planaxinae and also made a differentiation from convergent littorinimorphs feasible. The analysis of early ontogenetic shells of brackish water and limnic Thiaridae enabled to trace them back to the Middle Eocene and made new interpretations concerning their palaeobiogeography possible. Pseudamauridae could be documented from the Upper Cretaceous to the Middle Eocene with the aid of preserved proto-conchs and could be discriminated from convergent Nati-coidea and Archaeopulmonata. The phylogenetic history of Vermetoidea and Turritelloidea could be reconstructed since the Early Cretaceous and convergent groups could be differentiated. Within the Littorinimorpha characters regarding the early shell could be worked out to subdivide Littorinoidea and Rissooidea. Pick-worthiidae with alloisostrophic protoconchs are documented since the Danian. Comparison with protoconchs of Triassic Pro-styliferidae yielded detailed accordance and documents the independent history of this lineage. The convergent Vanikoridae could be discriminated by their protoconch-morphology and signi-ficant differences to the other Littorinimorpha are presented. Micromphalina peyrerensis and Megalomphalus (M.) antwerpensis are described as new species and are included within the Vanikoridae.