Uganda is subdivided in four water management zones. One of them is the Kyoga Water Management Zone (KWMZ) in which the Manafwa subcatchment is located. The Manafwa river is the main freshwater source of Mbale City, supplied by the Manafwa Waterworks. The citizens in the rural as well as urban areas suffer from a lack of fresh water availability and accessibility.
These water related challenges in the subcatchment are triggered by growing population and migration, ongoing deforestation accompanied by poorness and inappropriate possibilities for income generation and farming activities, as well as a weak infrastructure and institutions.