Mountainous areas are typical water sources for lowlands. These areas are also described as headwater areas or water tower (e.g. in East Africa). In general, they do not underlay any specific protection laws despite the scientifically proven fact of providing most of the fresh water.
The effect of headwater areas are:
These effects are only persistent as long as the natural environment of headwater areas are not changes and do not underlay anthropogenic and unsustainable activities. However, in Kenya the headwater areas are accepted as the most value water resources and are protected by law (Kenyan Water Act 2003).